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Today in History



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JANUARY
FEBRUARY MARCH APRIL MAY JUNE
JULY
AUGUST SEPTEMBER OCTOBER NOVEMBER DECEMBER

Important January Events
January 1 — New Year's Day in many countries.
January 1, 1804 — Haiti became independent.
January 1, 1863 — President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation.
January 1, 1901 — Commonwealth of Australia was formed.
January 1, 1956 — Sudan became independent.
January 1, 1962 — Western Samoa (now Samoa) became independent.
January 3, 106 B.C. — Cicero, Roman statesman, born.
January 4, 1809 — Louis Braille, French inventor of the alphabet used by the blind, born.
January 4, 1948 — Burma (now Myanmar) became independent.
January 5, 1834 — William Wills, explorer of Australia, born.
January 6, 1923 — Norman Kirk, prime minister of New Zealand between 1972 and 1974, born.
January 8, 1885 — John Curtin, prime minister of Australia between 1941 and 1945, born.
January 6 — Epiphany (Twelfth Night) celebrated by Christians.
January 10, 1920 — League of Nations established.
January 10, 1946 — First UN General Assembly met, London.
January 13, 1644 — Abel Tasman, Dutch navigator, began second voyage of exploration in Southern Hemisphere.
January 14, 1875 — Albert Schweitzer, German physician, musician, philosopher, and missionary, born.
January 15, 1929 — Martin Luther King, Jr., American civil rights leader, born.
January 16, 1547 — Coronation of Russian czar Ivan the Terrible.
January 16, 1851 — William Hall-Jones, prime minister of New Zealand for about six weeks in 1906, born.
January 16, 1979 — Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left Iran following mass demonstrations against his rule.
January 18, 1882 — A.A. Milne, British author for children, born.
January 18, 1912 — British explore Robert Scott's expedition reached the South Pole.
January 18, 1919 — Versailles Peace Conference opened following World War I.
January 18, 1944 — Paul Keating, prime minister of Australia between 1991 and 1996, born.
January 18, 1849 — Sir Edmund Barton, prime minister of Australia between 1901 and 1903, born.
January 19, 1736 — James Watt, Scottish inventor, born.
January 19, 1839 — Paul Cézanne, French painter, born.
January 19, 1809 — Edgar Allan Poe, American author, born.
January 20, 1841 — Hong Kong ceded to the United Kingdom by China.
January 21, 1924 — V. I. Lenin, Soviety dictator, died.
January 21, 1954 — The U.S.S. Nautilus, first nuclear-powered submarine, launched.
January 22, 1788 — Lord Byron, English poet, born.
January 22, 1901 — Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom died.
January 23, 1832 — Edouard Manet, French painter, born.
January 24, 1965 — Sir Winston Churchill, British statesman and prime minister, died.
January 25, 1759 — Robert Burns, Scottish poet, born.
January 26, 1788 — Sydney founded; celebrated as Australia Day.
January 26, 1905 — World's largest diamond, the Cullinan diamond, found in South Africa.
January 26, 1950 — India became a republic.
January 27, 1756 — Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Austrian composer, born.
January 27, 1832 — Lewis Carroll, English author, born.
January 27, 1880 — Thomas Edison granted the first patent for his incandescent light.
January 27, 1962 — Peter Snell, New Zealand middle distance runners breaks world mile record.
January 28, 1986 — U.S. space shuttle Challenger broke apart, killing all seven crew members aboard, including school teacher Christa McAuliffe.
January 28, 1949 — Mike Moore, prime minister of New Zealand briefly in 1990, born.
January 29, 1860 — Anton Chekhov, Russian playwright and short-story writer, born. (January 17 on the Russian calendar then in use).
January 30, 1649 — Charles I, king of England, executed.
January 30, 1771 — George Bass, explorer of Australia's coastline, born.
January 30, 1933 — Adolf Hitler, named chancellor of Germany.
January 30, 1948 — Mohandas K. Gandhi, spiritual and political leader of India, assassinated.
January 31, 1881 — Russian ballet dancer Anna Pavlova born.
January 31, 1968Nauru became independent.



Important February Events

February 2, 1829 — Charles Sturt discovered Darling River, Australia.
February 2, 1862 — New Zealand's first railway, the Don Mountain line, opened in Nelson.
February 2, 1882 — James Joyce, Irish novelist and poet, born.
February 2, 1943 — The last German troops surrendered in the Battle of Stalingrad during World War II.
February 3, 1809 — Felix Mendelssohn, German composer, born.
February 3, 1821 — Elizabeth Blackwell, first modern woman doctor born.
February 3, 1878 — Joseph Coates, prime minister of New Zealand between 1925 and 1928, born.
February 3, 1966 — Soviet Luna 9 spacecraft landed on the Moon.
February 4, 1948 — Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) became independent.
February 4, 1952 — Jenny Shipley, first woman prime minister of New Zealand between 1997 and 1999, born.
February 6, 1665 — Queen Anne of England, born.
February 6, 1840 — Waitangi Day, New Zealand.
February 6, 1952 — Elizabeth II became queen of the United Kingdom.
February 7, 1812 — Charles Dickens, British novelist, born.
February 7, 1912 — Sir Russell Drysdale, Australian painter, born.
February 7, 1974 — Grenada became independent.
February 8, 1587 — Mary, Queen of Scots, executed.
February 8, 1828 — Jules Verne, French novelist, born.
February 9, 1897 — Australian aviator Sir Charles Kingsford Smith, born.
February 9, 1770 — Captain James Cook completes circumnavigation of the North Island of New Zealand.
February 11, 1847 — Thomas A. Edison, inventor, born.
February 11, 1904 — Sir Keith Jacka Holyoake, prime minister of New Zealand twice: in 1957 and from 1960 to 1972.
February 12, 1912 — Russell Drysdale, Australian painter, born.
February 12, 1882 — Walter Nash, prime minister of New Zealand between 1957 and 1960, born.
February 12, 1554 — Lady Jane Grey, the "nine-day queen" of England, executed.
February 12, 1809 — Charles Darwin, British naturalist, born.
February 13, 1743 — Sir Joseph Banks, botanist who sailed with Captain James Cook, born.
February 14 — Valentine's Day.
February 14, 1779 — Captain James Cook, British navigator and explorer, died.
February 15, 1564 — Galileo, Italian astronomer and physicist, born.
February 17, 1864 — Banjo Paterson, Australian poet, lawyer and grazier, born.
February 18, 1516 — Mary I, first reigning queen of England, born.
February 18, 1965 — Gambia became independent.
February 19, 1473 — Nicolaus Copernicus, Polish astronomer, born.
February 19, 1878 — Thomas A. Edison patented the phonograph.
February 19, 1942 — Mainland Australia came under attack for the first time when Japanese forces mounted two air raids on Darwin.
February 20, 1962 — John H. Glenn, Jr., astronaut, became the first American to orbit the earth.
February 21, 1916 — The Battles of Verdun began during World War I.
February 22, 1857 — Robert Baden-Powell, founder of the Scout movement, born.
February 22, 1879 — Norman Lindsay, Australian artist and writer, born.
February 23, 1980 — Sir William McMahon, prime minister of Australia between 1971 to 1972, born.
February 23, 1633 — Samuel Pepys, English diarist, born.
February 23, 1685 — George Frideric Handel, composer, born in Germany.
February 24, 1835 — Sir Julius Vogel, served twice as prime minister of New Zealand—from April 1873 to July 1875 and from February to September 1876, born.
February 25, 1845 — Sir George Reid, prime minister of Australia between 1904 and 1905.
February 26, 1802 — Victor Hugo, French poet and novelist, born.
February 26, 1815 — Napoleon escaped from the island of Elba.
February 26, 1950 — Helen Clark, prime minister of New Zealand between 1999 and 2008, born.
   



Important March Events

March 1 — Saint David's Day
March 2, 1931 — Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet leader, born.
March 3 — Hinamatsuri (Doll Festival, also known as Girls' Day) in Japan.
March 3, 1847 — Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, born.
March 3, 1918 — Russian signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending the war with Germany.
March 4, 1804 — Castle Hill Rising began when convicts in Australia seized firearms.
March 5, 1912 — Sir John (Jack) Marshall, prime minister of New Zealand for 10 months in 1972, born.
March 5, 1953 — Joseph Stalin, Soviet dictator, died.
March 6, 1475Michelangelo Buonarroti, Italian artist, born.
March 6, 1806 — Elizabeth Barrett Browning, English poet, born.
March 6, 1937 — Valentina Tereshkova, Soviet cosmonaut and first woman in space, born.
March 6, 1957 — Ghana became independent.
March 7, 1876 — Alexander Graham Bell, patented the telephone.
March 9, 1856 — Tom Roberts,  Australian painter, born.
March 10, 1853 — Thomas Mackenzie, prime minister of New Zealand briefly in 1912, born.
March 10, 1892 — Arthur Honegger, French composer, born.
March 10, 1908 — Australian geologist and explorer Sir Douglas Mawson reached the summit of Mount Erebus, Antarctica.
March 11, 1544 — Torquato Tasso, Italian poet, born.
March 12, 1863 — Gabriele d'Annunzio, Italian poet, born.
March 12, 1869 — George Forbes, prime minister of New Zealand between 1930 and 1935, born.
March 12, 1930 — Indian nationalist Mohandas Gandhi and his followers began the 24-day Dandi march to protest the British tax on salt.
March 12, 1968 — Mauritius became independent.
March 13, 1733 — Joseph Priestley, English chemist, born.
March 14, 1804 — Johann Strauss, Snr., Austrian composer, born.
March 14, 1879 — Albert Einstein physicist, born.
March 15, 44 B.C. — Julius Caesar assassinated.
March 15, 1877 — First cricket test between England and Australia, at Melbourne.
March 16, 1774 — Matthew Flinders, navigator and explorer of Australia, born.
March 17 — St. Patrick's Day.
March 17, 1895 — Lloyd Rees, Australian artist, born.
March 18, 1858 — Rudolf Diesel, German inventor, born.
March 19, 1813 — David Livingstone, British explorer, born.
March 19, 1932 — The Sydney Harbour Bridge opened in Australia.
March 20, 1934 — David Malouf, Australian novelist and poet, born.
March 20, 1796 — Edward Gibbon Wakefield, pioneer of planned settlement in New Zealand, born.
March 20, 1956 — Tunisia became independent.
March 21, 1685 — Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer, born.
March 21, 1935 — Persia renamed Iran.
March 22, 1599 — Sir Anthony Van Dyck, Flemish painter, born.
March 23, 1749 — Pierre Laplace, French astronomer and mathematician, born.
March 23, 1872 — Michael Savage, prime minister of New Zealand between 1935 and 1940, born.
March 23, 1881 — Roger Martin du Gard, French novelist and Nobel Prize winner in literature, born.
March 23, 1929 — Roger Bannister, first to run a mile in less than four minutes, born.
March 24, 1834 — William Morris, English poet and artist, born.
March 25, 1807 — British Parliament abolished the slave trade.
March 25, 1821 — Greece declared its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
March 25, 1867 — Arturo Toscanini, Italian conductor, born.
March 25, 1881 — Bela Bartok, Hugarian composer, born.
March 26, 1856 — William Massey, prime minister of New Zealand between 1912 and 1925, born.
March 26, 1911 — Tennessee Williams, American playwright, born.
March 26, 1971 — East Pakistan declared its independence from Pakistan as the nation of Bangladesh.
March 27, 1839 — John Ballance, prime minister of New Zealand between 1891 and 1893, born.
March 29, 1900 — Sir John McEwen, prime minister of Australia between 1967 and 1968, born.
March 30, 1746 — Francisco Goya, Spanish painter, born.
March 30, 1856 — Treaty of Paris ended the Crimean War.
March 30, 1870 — John Forrest and party start first west-to-east crossing of Australia.
March 30, 1953 — Albert Einstein announced his revised Unified Field Theory.
March 31, 1596 — Rene Descartes, French philosopher, born.
March 31, 1732 — Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, born.
   



Important April Events

April 1 — April Fool's Day in many countries.
April 1, 1578 — William Harvey, English physician, born.
April 1, 1873 — Sergei Rachmaninoff, Russian composer, born.
April 1, 1897 — Jandamarra, an Aboriginal resistance fighter, was killed in a shootout on this date.
April 2, 742 — Charlemagne, medieval European ruler, born.
April 2, 1805 — Hans Christian Anderson, Danish fairy-tale writer, born.
April 2, 1840 — Emile Zola, French novelist, born.
April 4, 1968 — Martin Luther King, Jr., American civil rights leader, shot dead.
April 5, 1827 — Sir Joseph Lister, English surgeon, born.
April 6, 1824 — George Waterhouse, prime minister of New Zealand between 1872 and 1873, born.
April 6, 1909 — Robert Peary, American explorer, reached what he claimed was the North Pole.
April 7, 1939 — Brett Whiteley, Australian painter, sculptor, and printmaker, born.
April 7, 1770 — William Wordsworth, English poet, born.
April 8 — Hana Matsuri (Flower Festival) in Japan celebrates the birth of the Buddha.
April 8, 1867 — Sir Arthur Streeton, Australian painter, born.
April 9, 1806 — Isambard Kingdom Brunel, British engineer, born.
April 9, 1867 — Chris Watson, prime minister of Australia between April 1904 and August 1904, born.
April 10, 1829 — William Booth, English reformer and founder of the Salvation Army, born.
April 10, 1847 — Joseph Pulitzer, Hungarian publisher, born.
April 12, 1961 — Yuri Gagarin, Soviet astronaut, became the first person to orbit the earth.
April 13, 1906 — Samuel Beckett, Irish playwright, born.
April 13, 1895 — Sir Arthur Fadden, prime minister of Australia between August 1941 and October 1941, born.
April 14, 1812 — Sir George Grey, prime minister of New Zealand between 1877 and 1879, born.
April 15, 1452 — Leonardo da Vinci, Italian painter, sculptor, and scientist, born.
April 15, 1883 — Stanley Bruce, prime minister of Australia between 1923 and 1929, born.
April 15, 1912 — British ocean liner Titanic struck an iceberg and sank.
April 17, 1893 — Te Kooti, a warrior chief, and one of the greatest of the Maori leaders during the New Zealand Wars, died.
April 18, 1949 — Ireland declared independent Republic.
April 19, 1984 — Advance Australia Fair proclaimed Australia's National Anthem.
April 20, 1889 — Adolf Hitler, dictator of Germany, born.
April 21, 1782 — Friedrich Frobel, German founder of the kindergarten system, born.
April 21, 1816 — Charlotte Bronte, English novelist, born.
April 21, 1926 — Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, born.
April 21, 1942 — Geoffrey Palmer, prime minister of New Zealand between 1989 and 1990, born.
April 22 — Earth Day celebrated in many countries.
April 22, 1870 — V.I. Lenin, first dictator of the Soviet Union, born. (April 10 on the Russian calendar then in use.)
April 22, 1917 — Sidney Nolan, Australian artist, born.
April 23 — St George's Day
April 23, 1564 — Traditional birth date of William Shakespeare.
April 23, 1812 — Frederick Whitaker, prime minister of New Zealand between 1863 and 1864, and in 1882 and 1883, born.
April 23, 1896 — First public showing of a motion picture.
April 24, 1846 — Marcus Clarke, Australian writer, born.
April 24, 1916 — Easter Rising, revolutionary outbreak in Ireland.
April 25, 1874 — Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inventor, born.
April 25 — ANZAC Day, commemorating the Gallipoli landings by Australian and New Zealand troops during World War I, 1915.
April 26, 1856 — Sir Joseph Ward, prime minister of New Zealand between 1906 and 1912, born.
April 27, 1791 — Samuel Morse, inventor of the telegraph, born.
April 27, 1960 — Togo became independent.
April 27, 1961 — Sierra Leone became independent.
April 28, 1789 — Mutiny against British naval captain William Bligh on his ship, the Bounty.
April 28, 1795 — Charles Sturt, British explorer of Australia, born.
April 30, 1945 — Adolf Hitler committed suicide.
April 30, 1975 — Vietnam War ended.
   



Important May Events

May — Mother's Day (second Sunday in May) in Australia and New Zealand.
May 1 — May Day (International Labor Day).
May 1, 1707 — The Act of Union joined England and Wales with Scotland to form a united kingdom of Great Britain.
May 2, 1729 — Catherine the Great of Russia, born.
May 3, 1841 — New Zealand was proclaimed a separate colony.
May 3, 1898 — Golda Meir, prime minister of Israel, born.
May 3, 1469 — Niccolo Machiavelli, Italian statesman and author of The Prince, born.
May 4, 1825 — Thomas Huxley, English biologist, born.
May 5, 1818 — Karl Marx, German author of Das Kapital, born.
May 6, 1840 — First postage stamp issued in England.
May 6, 1856 — Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, born.
May 6, 1937 — Airship Hindenburg blew up and burned.
May 7, 1812 — Robert Browning, English poet, born.
May 7, 1833 — Johannes Brahms, German composer, born.
May 7, 1840 — Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer, born.
May 7, 1915 — A German submarine sank the passenger liner Lusitania in World War I.
May 8, 1945 — Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day); the day after Germany surrendered, ending World War II in Europe.
May 9, 1806 — J.M. Barrie, Scottish author, best known play is Peter Pan (1904), born.
May 9, 1823 — Frederick Weld, prime minister of New Zealand between 1864 and 1865, born.
May 10, 1871 — Franco-Prussian War ended.
May 11, 1888 — Irvin Berlin, American songwriter, born.
May 12, 1820 — Florence Nightingale, English nurse, born.
May 12, 1926 — Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer, flew over the North Pole.
May 13, 1842 — Sir Arthur Sullivan, English composer (Gilbert and Sullivan), born.
May 14, 1796 — Edward Jenner, British physician, performed the first vaccination against smallpox.
May 14, 1811 — Paraguay won independence from Spain.
May 14, 1948 — Israel became an independent country.
May 15, 1928 — Royal Flying Doctor Service began in Australia.
May 18, 1868 — Czar Nicholas II of Russia, born.
May 18, 1919 — Dame Margot Fonteyn, British ballerina, born.
May 19, 1861 — Dame Nellie Melba, Australian singer, born.
May 20, 1811 — Alfred Domett, prime minister of New Zealand between 1862 and 1863, born.
May 20, 1932 — Amelia Earhart began the first solo transatlantic flight by a woman.
May 20, 2002 — East Timor became an independent country.
May 21, 1927 — Charles Lindbergh finished first transatlantic solo flight.
May 21, 1930 — Malcolm Fraser, prime minister of Australia between 1975 and 1983, born.
May 21, 1949 — The Comet makes the first jet airliner flight in the United Kingdom.
May 22, 1813 — Richard Wagner, German composer, born.
May 22, 1859 — Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, British author, created Sherlock Holmes, the world's best-known detective, born.
May 22, 1990 — Yemen proclaimed reunification.
May 23, 1707 — Carolus Linnaeus, Swedish botanist, born.
May 24, 1686 — Gabriel Fahrenheit, German physicist, born.
May 24, 1819 — Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, born.
May 25, 1946 — Jordan declared its independence from the United Kingdom.
May 26 — National Sorry Day in Australia.
May 26, 1966 — British Guiana (now Guyana) became independent.
May 28, 1912 — Patrick White, Australian novelist, born.
May 29, 1453 — Ottoman Turks captured Constantinople (now Istanbul).
May 29, 1660 — Monarchy restored to England.
May 29, 1953 — Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay became the first people to reach the top of Mount Everest.
May 30, 1431 — Joan of Arc burned at the stake.
May 30, 1498 — Christopher Columbus began his third voyage.
May 31, 1935 — Jim Bolger, prime minister of New Zealand between 1990 and 1997, born.
May 31, 1961 — South Africa became a republic.
May 31, 1928 — Charles Kingsford Smith and Charles Ulm began the first air crossing of the Pacific Ocean.
   



Important June Events
June 1, 1907 — Sir Frank Whittle, British inventor, born.
June 1, 1937 — Colleen McCullough, Australian author, born.
June 2, 1813 — Daniel Pollen, prime minister of New Zealand between 1875 and 1876, born.
June 2, 1840 — Thomas Hardy, English novelist, born.
June 2, 1946 — Italians voted to make Italy a republic instead of a monarchy.
June 2, 1953 — Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.
June 3, 1621 — Dutch West India Company chartered.
June 3, 1790 — First ship of the Second Fleet from England entered Sydney Heads, Australia.
June 4, 1942 — Battle of Midway in World War II began.
June 5 — World Environment Day.
June 5, 1967 — Six-Day War began between Israel and Egypt, Jordan and Syria.
June 5, 1968 — U.S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy shot by an assassin.  He died the following day.
June 6, 1844 — YMCA organised in London.
June 6, 1944 — D-Day in World War II; Allied troops landed on the German-held coast of northern France.
June 8 — World Oceans Day
June 8, 1810 — Robert Schumann, German composer, born.
June 8, 1867 — Frank Lloyd Wright, American architect, born.
June 9, 1672 — Peter the Great, czar of Russia, born.
June 9, 1781 — George Stephenson, British engineer known as the Founder of Railways, born.
June 10, 1838 — Myall Creek Massacre was an 1838 incident in which European cattle workers killed about 28 Australian Aboriginal men, women, and children.
June 11, 1776 — John Constable, English painter, born.
June 12, 1929 — Anne Frank, diarist, born.
June 12, 1898 — The Philippines gained independence from Spain.
June 13, 323 B.C. — Alexander the Great died.
June 13, 1831 — James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish physicist, born.
June 13, 1865 — William Butler Yeats, Irish poet and playwright, born.
June 15, 1215 — King John of England granted the Magna Carta.
June 15, 1843 — Edvard Grieg, Norwegian composer, born.
June 15, 1844 — Charles Goodyear was granted a patent for rubber vulcanization.
June 17, 1867 — Henry Lawson, Australian short-story writer and poet, born.
June 17, 1972 — Burglary of Democratic Party headquarters in Washington, D.C., touched off the Watergate political scandal.
June 17, 1944 — Iceland became independent from Denmark.
June 18, 1815 — Napoleon defeated at the Battle of Waterloo.
June 19, 1623 — Blaise Pascal, French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist, born.
June 20, 1837 — Victoria became queen of the United Kingdom.
June 21, 1945 — Allied forces captured Okinawa in World War II.
June 21, 1948 — Lionel Rose, Australian Aboriginal world bantamweight champion boxer, born.
June 21, 1945 — Allied forces captured Okinawa in World War II.
June 22, 1815 — Napoleon abdicated for the second time.
June 22, 1845 — Richard Seddon, prime minister of New Zealand between 1893 and 1906, born.
June 22, 1887 — Julian Huxley, British biologist, born.
June 22, 1940 — France surrendered to Germany in World War II.
June 22, 1941 — Germany invaded the Union of Soviety Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.).
June 23, 1893 — Sir William Fox, prime minister of New Zealand four separate times between 1861 and 1873, died.
June 24, 1314 — Scots defeated English at the Battle of Bannockburn.
June 25, 1929 — Eric Carle born; illustrator and author gaining recognition with The Very Hungry Caterpillar (1969).
June 25, 1950 — Korean War began.
June 26, 1799 — Alexander Pushkin, Russian poet, born.
June 27, 1865 — Sir John Monash, Australian engineer and soldier, born.
June 27, 1880 — Helen Keller, deaf and blind American author and lecturer, born.
June 28, 1491 — King Henry VIII of England born.
June 28, 1577 — Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish painter, born.
June 28, 1861 — Burke and Wills, explorers, died on return journey after first north-south crossing of Australia.
June 28, 1914 — Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife were assassinated, touching off World War I.
June 28, 1919 — Treaty of Versailles signed.
June 30, 1960 — Congo (Kinshasa) became independent.
   



Important July Events
July 1, 1851 — Proclamation of the state of Victoria.
July 1, 1916 — Battle of the Somme in World War I began.
July 1, 1997 — Hong Kong reunited with China after 99 years as a British overseas territory.
July 2, 1862 — Sir William Gragg, English physicist, born.
July 4 — Independence Day, United States.
July 5, 1811 — Venezuela declared its independence.
July 6, 1535 — Saint Thomas More beheaded.
July 7, 1937 — Chinese and Japanese troops clashed, beginning the struggle that became World War II.
July 8, 1838 — Count von Zeppelin, German inventor, born.
July 8, 1882 — Percy Grainger, Australian composer, born.
July 9, 1816 — Argentina declared its independence from Spain.
July 10, 1985 — Greenpeace ship, Rainbow Warrior, sunk in Auckland Harbour, New Zealand, by French secret agents.
July 10, 1940 — Battle of Britain in World War II.
July 10, 1973 — The Bahamas became independent from the United Kingdom.
July 11, 1274 — Robert I (Robert Bruce), king of Scotland, born.
July 11, 1899 — E.B. White, author who wrote Stuart Little and Charlotte's Web, born.
July 11, 1916 — Gough Whitlam, prime minister of Australia between 1972 and 1975, born.
July 12 — Twelfth of July (Orangemen's Day), Northern Ireland.
July 12, 1920 — Panama Canal opened.
July 13, 1791 — Allan Cunningham, British explore and botanist who discovered Australia's Darling Downs, born.
July 14 — Bastille Day, France; citizens stormed the Bastille in 1789, beginning the French Revolution.
July 15, 1606 — Rembrandt, Dutch painter and etcher, born.
July 15, 1918 — Second Battle of the Marne in World War I began.
July 16, 622 — Hijrah, or flight of Muhammad, prophet of Islam.
July 16, 1704 — John Kay, British inventor of weaving machinery, born.
July 16, 1872 — Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer, born.
July 16, 1945 — First atomic bomb set off, Alamogordo, New Mexico, USA
July 17, 1918 — Czar Nicholas II of Russia and his family killed at Yekaterinburg.
July 17-18, 1936 — Spanish Civil War began.
July 18, 1890 — Frank Forde, prime minister of Australia for 8 days in 1945, born.
July 19, 1553 — Lady Jane Grey deposed as England's queen after a brief reign.
July 19, 1834 — Edgar Degas, French painter, born.
July 19, 1870 — France declared war on Prussia.
July 20, 1919 — Sir Edmund Hillary, New Zealand mountain climber, one of the first two men to reach the top of Mount Everest and return, born.
July 20, 1944 — German army officers, including Clause von Stauffenberg tried to kill Hitler.
July 20, 1969 — Neil A. Armstrong, astronaut, became the first person to walk on the moon.
July 21, 1899 — Ernest Hemingway, American author and Nobel Prize winner, born.
July 21, 1899 — Eric Winslow Woodward, first native-born governor of New South Wales, Australia, born.
July 22, 1910 — Alan Moorehead, Australian journalist and author, born.
July 24, 1897 — Amelia Earhart, American aviator and first woman to fly over the Atlantic, born.
July 24, 1920 — Arthur Boyd, Australian artist, born.
July 25, 1814 — George Stephenson, British engineer, first successfully demonstrated a steam locomotive.
July 26, 1856 — George Bernard Shaw, Irish playwright, born.
July 26, 1939 — John Howard, prime minister of Australia between 1996 and 2007, born.
July 27, 1953 — Truce ending Korean War signed.
July 28, 1821 — Peru became independent from Spain.
July 28, 1866 — Beatrix Potter, English author and illustrator for children, born.
July 28, 1914 — Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, beginning World War I.
July 28, 1923 — Work began on Sydney Harbour Bridge.
July 29, 1883 — Benito Mussolini, Italian dictator, born.
July 30, 1818 — Emily Bronte, English novelist, born.
   


Important August Events
August 1, 1819 — Augustus Gregory, explorer of Australia, born.
August 1 — All horses birthday.
August 1, 1914 — Germany declared war on Russia, World War I.
August 2, 1820 — John Tyndall, British physicist, born.
August 3, 1856 — Alfred Deakin, the second prime minister of Australia, born.
August 4, 1792 — Percy Byssche Shelley, English poet, born.
August 4, 1914 — UK declared war on Germany in World War I.
August 4, 1942 — David Lange, prime minister of New Zealand between 1984 and 1989, born.
August 4, 1960 — Tim Winton, Australian novelist and short-story writer, born.
August 5, 1815 — Edward Eyre, explorer of Australia, born.
August 5, 1930 — Neil Armstong, U.S. astronaut and first person to walk on the moon, born.
August 5, 1908 — Harold Holt, prime minister of Australia between 1966 and 1967, born.
August 6, 1809 — Alfred, Lord Tennyson, English poet, born.
August 6, 1825 — Bolivia became independent.
August 6, 1855 — Sir Isaac Isaacs, first native-born governor general of Australia, born.
August 6, 1881 — Alexander Fleming, discoverer of penicillin, born.
August 6, 1926 — Gertrude Ederle became the first woman to swim the English Channel.
August 6, 1945 — Atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, Japan.
August 7, 1903 — Louis S. B. Leakey, British anthropologist, born.
August 8, 1588 — English fleet attacked the Spanish Armada, (July 29 by calendar then in use).
August 8, 1967 — The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was launched.
August 8, 1880 — Sir Earle Page, prime minister of Australia for a short period during 1939, born.
August 9 — International Day of the World's Indigenous People.
August 9, 1593 — Izaak Walton, English author, best known for his book on fishing, The Compleat Angler, born.
August 9, 1631 — John Dryden, English poet and dramatist, born.
August 9, 1945 — Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.
August 9, 1961 — John Key, prime minister of New Zealand since 2008, born.
August 13, 1521 —Spanish conquerors won Mexico City from the Aztec.
August 13, 1961 — East Germans began building the Berlin Wall, 1961.
August 14, 1867 — John Galsworthy, English novelist best-known work is The Forsyte Saga, born.
August 14, 1902 — Felix Wankel, German inventor of the rotary engine, born.
August 14, 1947 — Pakistan became independent.
August 15, 1769 — Napoleon Bonaparte, born.
August 15, 1771 — Sir Walter Scott, Scottish author, born.
August 15, 1914 — Panama Canal opened to traffic.
August 15, 1947 — India became independent.
August 15, 1948 — South Korea was established.
August 15, 1960 — Congo (Brazzaville) became independent.
August 16, 1858 — The first official communication sent over a transatlantic cable.
August 17, 1945 — Indonesia declared its independence.
August 18 — Vietnam Veteran's Day
August 19, 1871 — Orville Wright, pioneer aviator, born.
August 20, 1968 — Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia.
August 22, 1642 — The start of the English Civil War.
August 22, 1647 — Denis Papin, French scientist who invented the pressure cooker, born.
August 22, 1862 — Claude Debussy, French composer, born.
August 25, 1768 — Captain Cook's ship Endeavour sailed from England on first exploratory voyage.
August 26, 1908 — Sir Donald Bradman, Australia's greatest cricketer, born.
August 28, 1749 — Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, German poet and dramatist, born.
August 28, 1833 — UK ended slavery in its colonies.
August 28, 1884 — Peter Fraser, prime minister of New Zealand between 1940 and 1949, born.
August 29, 1862 — Andrew Fisher, prime minister of Australia three times, born.
August 30, 1835 — Foundation of the city of Melbourne.
August 30, 1797 — Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, English author of Frankenstein, born.
   



Important September Events
September 1, 1939 — German troops invaded Poland, starting World War II in Europe.
September 2, 1666 — Great Fire of London began.
September 2, 1945 — Japan signed the terms of surrender aboard the battleship U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
September 3 — Australia Flag Day
September 3, 1899 — Sir Macfarlane Burnet, Australian doctor and expert on virus disease, born.
September 4, 1951 — Transcontinental television service began with a telecast of the Japanese peace conference.
September 6, 1766 — John Dalton, English scientist, born.
September 6, 1968 — Swaziland received full independence.
September 7, 1533 — Queen Elizabeth I of England, born.
September 7, 1807 — Henry Sewell, first prime minister of New Zealand in 1856, born.
September 7, 1815 — John McDouall Stuart, explorer of Australia, born in Scotland.
September 7, 1822 — Brazil declared its independence.
September 7, 1940 — Blitz of London in World War II began.
September 8, 1943 — Italy surrendered in World War II.
September 9, 1754 — William Bligh, British sea captain of the Bounty, born.
September 9, 1911 — John Gorton, Australian prime minister from 1968 - 1971, born.
September 11, 2001 — Terrorists crashed jetliners into the World Trade Center in New York City and into the Pentagon Building near Washington.
September 12, 1959 — Russians launched first rocket to the moon.
September 13, 1916 — Roald Dahl, famous British writer best known as an author of children's books, born.
September 14, 1752 — United Kingdom and its colonies adopted the Gregorian calendar.
September 15, 1879 — Joseph Lyons, prime minister of Australia between 1932 and 1939, born.
September 15, 1916 — British Army became the first to use military tanks.
September 16, 1963 — Malaysia came into existence.
September 18, 1709 — Samuel Johnson, English author and dictionary maker, born.
September 18, 1931 — Japanese forces invaded Manchuria.
September 18, 1876 — James Scullin, prime minister of Australia between 1929 and 1932, born.
September 19, 1356 — Edward, the "Black Prince" of England, won the Battle of Poitiers in the Hundred Years' War.
September 20, 1880 — Sister Elizabeth Kenny, Australian nurse, born.
September 22, 1791 — Michael Faraday, English scientist, born.
September 22, 1885 — Ben Chifley, prime minister of Australia between 1945 and 1949, born.
September 23, 63 B.C. — Augustus, first Roman emperor, born.
September 23, 1846 — Johann Gottfried Galle discovered the planet neptune.
September 24, 1846 — Edward Stafford, prime minister of New Zealand between 1865 and 1869, and for a month in 1872, born.
September 24, 1898 — Howard Florey, Australian scientist and codiscoverer of penicillin, born.
September 24, 1899 — Sir William Dobell, Australian painter, born.
September 24, 1914 — Sir John Kerr, governor-general of Australia from 1974 - 1977, born.
September 25, 1862 — William (Billy) Hughes, prime minister of Australia between 1915 and 1923, born.
September 25, 1921 — Sir Robert Muldoon, prime minister of New Zealand between 1975 and 1984, born.
September 26, 1580 — Sir Francis Drake, English sea captain, returned home after circumnavigating the world.
September 26, 1793 — William Hobson, first governor of New Zealand, born in Ireland.
September 28, 1844 — Sir Robert Stout, served briefly as prime minister of New Zealand in August 1884, then again from that September until October 1887, and Chief Justice of New Zealand, born.
September 28, 1066 — William the Conqueror landed in England.
September 29, 1758 — Horatio Nelson, British naval hero, born.
September 29, 106 B.C. — Pompey, Roman general, born.
   



Important October Events
October 1, 1949 — People's Republic of China was established.
October 1, 1960 — Nigeria became independent.
October 1, 1908 — First "Model T" Ford put on the market.
October 2, 1869 — Mohandas Gandhi, Indian political leader, born.
October 4, 1957 — U.S.S.R. launched Sputnick I, the first artificial satellite.
October 5, 1582 — Gregorian calendar introduced.
October 6, 1981 — Anwar el-Sadat, president of Egypt, assassinated.
October 7, 1769 — James Cook, British navigator, sighted the coast of New Zealand.
October 7, 1935 — Thomas Keneally, Australian writer, born.
October 9, 1962 — Uganda became independent.
October 10, 1975 — The Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 established the Waitangi Tribunal in New Zealand.
October 11, 1738 — Arthur Phillip, first governor of NSW, Australia, born in London.
October 14, 1879 — Miles Franklin, Australian author, born.
October 14, 1066 — William the Conqueror, won the Battle of Hastings.
October 15, 70 B.C. — Virgil, Roman poet, born.
October 15, 1783 — J.F. Pilatre de Rozier became the first person to ascent in a captive balloon.
October 16, 1936 — Jean Batten made the first direct flight from the UK to New Zealand.
October 16, 1854 — Oscar Wilde, Irish-born dramatist, born.
October 18, 1893 — Sir Sidney Holland, prime minister of New Zealand between 1949 and 1957, born.
October 19, 1879 — Thomas Edison first demonstrated his electric light.
October 20, 1632 — Sir Christopher Wren, English architect, born.
October 21, 1520 — Magellan entered strait that bears his name.
October 21, 1805 — British Admiral Nelson was killed at Trafalgar.
October 21, 1833 — Alfred Nobel, Swedish philanthropist and founder of the Nobel Prize, born.
October 22, 1811 — Franz Liszt, Hungarian composer, born.
October 23, 1942 — British began offensive at El Alamein in Egypt in World War II.
October 24, 1861 — First transcontinental telegram sent.
October 24, 1945 — United Nations formally established.
October 25, 1415 — Henry V of England defeated the French at Agincourt in the Hundred Years' War.
October 25, 1616 — Dirk Hartog landed on an island off the coast of Western Australia.
October 25, 1881 — Pablo Picasso, Spanish painter, born.
October 25, 1825 — "Waltz King" Johann Strauss, Jr., born.
October 26 — International Red Cross Day.
October 27, 1728 — Captain James Cook, explorer, born.
October 28, 1914 — Jonas Salk, developer of a polio vaccine, born.
October 29, 1881 — Marion Phillips, Australian economist and the first Australian woman to be elected to the British House of Commons, born.
October 29, 1929 — Collapse of U.S. stock market (Black Tuesday), beginning the Great Depression.
October 30, 1922 — Benito Mussolini, founder of fascism, became prime minister of Italy.
October 31 — Halloween in many countries.
October 31, 1888 — Sir Hubert Wilkins, Australian explorer, born.
October 31, 1795 — John Keats, English poet, born.
October 31, 1984 — Indira Gandhi, Indian prime minister, assassinated.
   



Important November Events
November 1 — All Saints' Day observed by Christians.
November 1, 1470 — Edward V, king of England, born.
November 1, 1831 — Harry Atkinson, prime minister of New Zealand between 1876 and 1877, briefly again in 1884, and from 1887 to 1891, born.
November 2 — All Souls' Day observed by Christians.
November 2, 1755 — Marie Antoinette, French queen, born.
November 3, 1903 — Panama declared itself independent from Colombia.
November 4, 1922 — Tomb of Tutankhamun, king of Egypt, discovered.
November 4, 1995 — Yitzhak Rabin, prime minister of Israel, assassinated.
November 5 — Guy Fawkes Day in the UK; Gunpowder Plot to blow up the English Houses of Parliament failed in 1605.
November 7, 1867 — Marie Curie, French physicist, born.
November 7, 1917 — Bolsheviks ousted provisional Russian government. (October 25 on the Russian calendar then in use.)
November 7, 1926 — Joan Sutherland, Australian opera singer, born.
November 7, 1935 — Charles Kingsford Smith, Australian aviator, disappeared after leaving Allahabad, India on a long-distance flight.
November 8, 1656 — Edmond Halley, British astronomer, born.
November 9, 1818 — Ivan Turgenev, Russian novelist, born.
November 9, 1938 — Kristallnacht, when Jewish businesses and synagogues throughout Germany were attacked by the Nazis.
November 9, 1953 — Cambodia became independent.
November 9, 1989 — Opening of the Berlin Wall, Germany.
November 10, 1483 — Martin Luther, German religious leader, born.
November 10, 1697 — William Hogarth, English painter, born.
November 11, 1880 — Ned Kelly, Australian bushranger, hanged.
November 11, 1918 — Armistice signed ending World War I.
November 11, 1918 — Poland was proclaimed an independent republic.
November 12, 1817 — Baha'u'llah, Baha'i phrophet, born.
November 12, 1840 — Auguste Robin, French sculptor, born.
November 13, 1850 — Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish novelist, born.
November 13, 1971 — Mariner 9, the first human-made object to orbit another planet, began orbiting Mars.
November 14, 1845 — George Grey, served two terms as Governor and later one as premier, arrives in New Zealand.
November 14, 1840 — Claude Monet, French painter, born.
November 14, 1948 — Prince Charles, heir to the British throne, born.
November 15, 1738 — William Herschel, British astronomer, born.
November 15, 1920 — First meeting of League of Nations Assembly.
November 15, 1927 — Sir Wallace Rowling, prime minister of New Zealand between 1974 and 1975, born.
November 17, 1869 — Suez Canal opened.
November 18, 1787 — Louis Jacques Daguerre, French painter and inventor of the daguerreotype, born.
November 18, 1836 — Sir William Gilbert, English dramatist who worked with composer Sir Arthur Sullivan, born.
November 18, 1903 — United States and Panama signed a treaty providing for the Panama Canal.
November 19, 1863 — U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address.
November 19, 1805 — Ferdinand de Lesseps, French promoter of the Suez Canal, born.
November 19, 1917 — Indira Gandhi, first woman prime minister of India, born.
November 21, 1643 — Sieur de La Salle, French explorer, born.
November 21, 1694 — Voltaire, French author and philosopher, born.
November 22, 1819 — George Eliot, English novelist, born.
November 22, 1890 — Charles de Gaulle, French statesman, born.
November 22, 1963 — U.S. President John F. Kennedy assassinated.
November 23, 1923 — Radio broadcasting began in Australia.
November 24, 1859 — Charles Darwin's book, On the Origin of Species, published.
November 24, 1864 — Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, French painter, born.
November 25, 1880 — John Flynn, founder of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia, born.
November 26, 1855 — The name Van Diemen's Land was officially replaced by Tasmania.
November 27, 1849 — Te Rauparaha, New Zealand Maori chief, died.
November 28, 1757 — William Blake, English poet and artist, born.
November 28, 1960 — Mauritania, became independent.
November 29, 1832 — Louisa M. Alcott, author born.
November 30, 1667 — Jonathan Swift, English author, born.
November 30, 1835 — Mark Twain, American author, born.
November 30, 1874 — Sir Winston Churchill, British statesman, born.
   



Important December Events
December 1, 1987 — World Health Organisation declares the first World AIDS Day.
December 2, 1911 —  Douglas Mawson led the 1911-14 Australasian Antarctic Expedition.
December 2, 1942 — Scientists in Chicago achieved the first controlled atomic chain reaction, leading to the development of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons.
December 3, 1854 — Eureka Stockade incident, a revolt by gold miners, in Australia.
December 3, 1967 — Christiaan Barnard, South African surgeon, performed the first human heart transplant.
December 3, 1984 — Poisonous gas leaded from a pesticide plant, killing over 2,800 people at Bhopal, in Madhya Pradesh, India.
December 4, 1795 — Thomas Carlyle, Scottish author, born.
December 5, 1901 — Walt Disney, American movie producer, born.
December 6, 1917 — Finland declared its independence from Russia.
December 6, 1922 — Proclamation of Irish Free State, 1922.
December 6, 1971 — War broke out between India and Pakistan.
December 7, 1941 — Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in World War II.
December 7, 1860 — Sir Joseph Cook, prime minister of Australia between 1913 and 1914, born.
December 8, 65 B.C. — Horace, Roman poet, born.
December 8, 1934 — First weekly airmail service between England and Australia.
December 8, 1949 — Chinese Nationalists fled to Formosa (today Taiwan).
December 8, 1980 — John Lennon shot and killed in New York City.
December 9, 1608 — John Milton, English poet, born.
December 9, 1929 — Robert Hawke, Australian prime minister, born.
December 10, 1919 — Ross and Keith Smith, Australian aviators, completed first flight from United Kingdom to Australia.
December 10, 1908 — New Zealand born Ernest Rutherford won Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
December 10, 1962 — New Zealand born Maurice Wilkins shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
December 11, 1936 — Edward VIII of the United Kingdom gave up the throne.
December 12, 1901 — Guglielmo Marconi received the first radio signal sent across the Atlantic Ocean.
December 12, 1963 — Kenya became independent.
December 13, 1577 — Sir Francis Drake left England to sail around the world, attacking Spanish possessions.
December 14, 1911 — Roald Amundsen, Norwegian explorer, reached the South Pole.
December 16, 1653 — Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector and ruler of England.
December 16, 1689 — English Parliament passed Bill of Rights.
December 16, 1773 — Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1775 — Jane Austen, English novelist, born.
December 16, 1899 — Sir Noel Coward, British actor and playwright, born.
December 17, 1967 — Harold Holt disappeared while swimming alone off Cheviot Beach, near Melbourne.
December 17, 1778 — Sir Humphry Davy, English chemist, born.
December 17, 1903 — Orville Wright made first heavier-than-air flight, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
December 18, 1907 — Christopher Fry, British playwright, born.
December 18, 1824 — John Hall, prime minister of New Zealand between 1879 and 1882, born.
December 19, 1946 — Vietminh forces attacked the French in Hanoi, starting the Indochina War.
December 20, 1894 — Sir Robert Menzies, Australian prime minister, born.
December 21, 1879 — Joseph Stalin, Soviet dictator, born.
December 22, 1858 — Giacomo Puccini, Italian opera composer, born.
December 23, 1732 — Richard Arkwright, British inventor, born.
December 24, 1951 — Libya became independent.
December 25 — Christians celebrate Christmas as the birth of Jesus Christ.
December 25, 1642 — Isaac Newton, English scientist, born.
December 25, 1991 — The Soviet Union was dissolved.
December 26 — Boxing Day in various countries.
December 26, 1791 — Charles Babbage, British scientist known as "father of the computer," born.
December 26, 1893 — Mao Zedong, Chinese leader, born.
December 27, 1571 — Johannes Kepler, German astronomer, born.
December 27, 1822 — Louis Pasteur, French chemist, born.
December 29, 1170 — St. Thomas Becket murdered at Canterbury, England.
December 30, 1865 — Rudyard Kipling, British writer, born.
December 31, 1514 — Andreas Vesalius, Flemish anatomist, born.
December 31, 1869 — Henri Matisse, French painter, born.
   
 
   
 
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